The so-called PAP smear or PAP test was developed in 1928 by the Greek physician George Papanicolaou. It is based on the evaluation of colored cervical cell smears and is used for the early detection of cervical cancer.

The PAP smear results can be classified as follows:

PAPI      =    normal cells
PAPII   = inflammatory and/or degenerated cell changes
PAPIIw   =

severe inflammatory and/or degenerted cell changes,
a definite classification as benign is not possible

PAPIII   = severe cell changes, cannot be completely ruled out from being malignant
PAPIIID1   = presence of cells showing mild cell changes
PAPIIID2   = presence of cells showing moderate cell changes
PAPIVa   = severe cell changes
PAPIVb   = severe cell changes, an early stage of cervical cancer cannot be ruled out
PAP V   = cervical cancer cells present









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