A conization is a surgical procedure in which the doctor removes a cone-shaped piece of the cervix containing the area with abnormal cells. The operation is performed under general anesthesia either in an outpatient facility or in the hospital. Sooner or later, the procedure can lead to preterm delivery or even miscarriage as the cervix is weakened.

It is recommended to undergo conization only when the suspicion of high-grade cell changes has been confirmed. Many unclear PAP findings, which were followed by a conization, turn out to be without pathological findings. The conization wasn't necessary: an overtreatment causing high costs and, in certain cases, many complications for the patient.

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